JCT D&B 2011 - Is it possible for a subcontractor to claim additional supervision costs under a variation claim bought about by a contractor accelerating the works

The simple answer is almost certainly yes. When pricing the VO you need to take into account the circumstances in which the VO arises and how that may differ from rates used in pricing the original works. Acceleration is such a circumstances in the same way that working in a confined space or more onerous conditions would be.